TECHINAUT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
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ABOUT THE “COMPUTER HARDWARE” SYLLABUS
This is a revised and updated version of TECHINAUT INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY syllabus of COMPUTER HARDWARE. This COMPUTER HARDWARE syllabus is designed to facilitate students to develop a practical approach to solve COMPUTER HARDWARE problem or break down.
Every day we are challenged with new technology and new adaptations of existing technology with the result that we are continually all beginners. While this course is designed primarily for to know more about personal computer (PC) hardware, it may also prove to be helpful to expand knowledge of the PC’s hardware.
This course is intended to provide an in-depth introduction to the hardware and technology of the personal computer and to answer your questions about how it all works. I sincerely hope you enjoy the courses.
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE
The goal of this course is to present an overview of COMPUTER HARDWARE IT tools used in day to day of computers maintenance. The Course has been designed to provide knowledge on various hardware and software components and tools of the computer like Operating System, BIOS, and other applications, concepts & operations and various issues related to COMPUTER HARDWARE.
The contents of these courses are structured so that you can focus on a particular group of the parts of the PC.
Part I This part of the Courses (The Basics) contains an introduction to some of the underlying concepts and principles of the PC, including digital logic, electronics, and electricity.
Part II (Internal Components) looks at the electronics and other components found inside the system case. This is where all the mysterious stuff goes on and is a very good place to start your reading.
Part III (External Components) covers the devices found outside the system case (including the system case itself) that connect to the computer through its interface ports.
Finally, Part IV (System Care and Troubleshooting) is a guide to how to care for your computer and figure out what is wrong when the PC is not working as it should.
We hope you enjoy this book. When you have completed it, you will be an ex-beginner.
TABLE OF CONTENT
PART I THE BASICS
SECTION 1: THE PERSONAL COMPUTER (10 HRS)
a. A Brief Look at the Evolution of Computers: The Evolution of Personal Computers, The PC over the Years.
b. Intel versus Apple
c. An Overview of Systems and Components: Input Devices, Input Devices, Inside the System Case, It All Works Together.
d. An Overview of Systems and Components: Input Devices, Input Devices, Inside the System Case, It All Works Together.
SECTION 2: BASIC PC CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY (10 HRS)
a. An Introduction to Digital Logic: Digital versus Analog, Computing in Binary Numbers.
b. The Hexadecimal Number System: Working with Number Systems on the PC.
c. Electricity and the PC: AC Power and DC Power, External Power Issues, Protecting Against ESD.
d. A Quick Overview of the Electronics of the PC: Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors, The Electronic Building Blocks of the PC.
PART II INTERNAL COMPONENTS
SECTION 3: MICROPROCESSORS (10 HRS)
a. An Introduction to Digital Logic: Two-State Logic, Binary Data, Storing Data in a Byte, Converting Decimal to Binary, Binary Logic Operations, The Hexadecimal System.
b. Semiconductors Conductors and Insulators, How an IC Is Made.
c. The Transistor: Storing Electricity, Integrated Circuit.
d. The Microprocessor: CPU’s Bus System, Packaging, Cooling the Processor, Sockets and Slots, The Evolution of the PC Microprocessor, The Pentium, Intel Pentium Pro, The Pentium II, Intel Pentium III, Intel Pentium 4, ETC.
SECTION 4: MOTHERBOARDS (10 HRS)
a. Motherboard Designs: Motherboards, Backplanes.
b. Motherboard Form Factors: The IBM PC XT, The IBM PC AT, The Baby AT Form Factor, Micro-AT Form Factor, LPX and Mini-LPX Specifications, ATX Form Factor, Mini-ATX, NLX Form Factor.
c. The Components of the Motherboard:
d. Upgrading a Motherboard
SECTION 5: CHIPSETS AND CONTROLLERS (10 HRS)
a. Introduction to Chipsets: Socket Type, North Bridge, and South Bridge, Processor Generations.
b. Controller Chips: Bus Architectures, Keyboard Controller, Super I/O Controller, Other Device Controllers.
c. Chipsets: Chipset Functions, Intel Chipsets, Non-Intel Chipsets.
d. New Developments
SECTION 6: THE BIOS AND THE BOOT PROCESS (10 HRS)
a. An Introduction to the BIOS: The BIOS Utilities and Programs, BIOS Manufacturers.
b. Booting the Computer: System Boot Sequence, Cold Boots versus Warm Boots, The POST Process, BIOS Startup Screen, System Configuration Summary.
c. ROMs, PROMs, and EPROMs: BIOS Chips, Read-Only Memory (ROM), Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM), Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM), Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), ROM BIOS.
d. The BIOS Configuration: System Configuration Data.
e. BIOS Updates and Flash BIOS: Flashing Dangers, Dealing with a Corrupt BIOS, Flashing Security, The Boot Block.
SECTION 7: COMPUTER MEMORY (10 HRS)
a. A Brief Overview of ROM
c. RAM: Random Access, Volatile versus Nonvolatile, Bits, Bytes, and Words, Memory Speeds, RAM Types, Static RAM, DRAM, Matching Memory to the Motherboard, Parity Memory, DRAM Technologies, Video RAM, Parameter RAM.
d. Logical Memory Configuration: Conventional Memory, The Upper Memory Area, Extended Memory and the High Memory Area.
e. Dealing with Memory Errors: Common Memory Errors, Software Diagnostic Tools, Memory Testing Tools.
f. Installing Memory Modules in a PC: Installing a SIMM in a PC, Installing a DIMM on a PC, Configuring the PC for Memory, Removing a Memory Module.
SECTION 8: CACHE MEMORY (10 HRS)
a. Cache on the PC: SRAM and Cache Memory, Caching in Operation, Internal, External, and Levels of Cache, Sizing Your Cache, Cache Memory Types, Caching Write Policies, Nonblocking Cache, Cache Mapping, Cache Mounts.
b. Installing a Cache Module: General Tips for Working on a Motherboard, Installing a COAST Module, Installation Problems, Enabling the Internal Cache, Enabling the External Cache.
SECTION 9: HARD DISKS AND FLOPPY DISKS (10 HRS)
a. Hard Disk Drives: Hard Disk Construction, The Spindle Motor, Storage Media, Read/Write Heads, Head Actuators, Air Filters, Logic Boards, Connectors and Jumpers, Bezel.
b. Interfaces: ST506/412 Interface, ESDI, IDE, SCSI Interface, FC-AL Interface, System Bus Interface, Transfer Protocols, Data Addressing.
c. Data Organization: Disk Capacities.
d. Hard Disk Performance: Performance Indicators, Interleaving.
e. Formatting the Disk: Partitioning the Hard Disk, File Systems.
f. Disk Space Requirements: Disk Compression, RAID.
g. Floppy Disk Drives: Floppy Disk Construction, Formatting.
SECTION 10: CD-ROMS AND DVDS (10 HRS)
a. The Technology of the CD and CD-ROM: CD-ROM Formats, Compact Disc Media, CD-ROM Drive Operation, Audio Output and Controls, Single and Multiple Drives.
b. Digital Versatile/Video Disc (DVD): DVD Technology, Installing a DVD Drive in Your PC.
SECTION 11: EXPANSION CARDS (10 HRS)
a. Using Expansion Cards
b. Expansion Buses: Bus Mastering, Local Bus Architectures, Portable PC Interface, SCSI Interfaces, Serial and Parallel Ports, USB and IEEE 1394 Interfaces.
c. Expansion Cards: Controller Cards, Input/Output (I/O) Cards, Interface Cards, Memory Cards, Memory Expansion Card (MEC), PC Card Memory, Modem Cards, Sound Cards, Video Cards.
d. Expansion Card Operation: Interrupt Requests (IRQs), I/O Addresses, Direct Memory Access, Setting System Resources, Plug, and Play.
e. Working with Expansion Cards: Installing an Expansion Card, Troubleshooting Expansion Cards, Dealing with Choke Points, Resolving Resource Conflicts on Windows PCs, Resolving Resource Conflicts with Plug-and-Play Devices.
SECTION 12: VIDEO CARDS (10 HRS)
a. How a Video Card Works: Transform and Lighting Phase, Setup Phase, Dividing Up the Work, 2D and 3D Graphic Data, Converting Digital to Analog, Pathways and Converters.
b. Video Card Standards: Connector.
c. Video Card Components: Video Processor, Video Memory, Resolution, Color Depth, Aspect Ratio, How Much Video Memory Is Needed?, 3D Video Memory, Video RAM Technologies, Bus Mastering, Video Chipsets, The Video BIOS, The RAMDAC.
d. 3D Graphics: 3D Graphics Accelerators, Transform and Lighting, Setup, Rendering.
e. Installing a Video Card
f. Troubleshooting the Video Card: Determining the Type of Video Card in a PC.
g. Troubleshooting Video Problems: Nothing Is Displayed on the Monitor, The Display Is Scrambled, The Display Appears Fuzzy or Blurry, The Settings for the Video Card Are Not Listed in the Windows Display Settings, Higher Resolutions Cannot Be Selected.
h. Upgrading the RAM on a Video Card
SECTION 13: SYSTEM RESOURCES (10 HRS)
a. System Resources: Getting the CPU’s Attention, Communicating to Devices, Taking Control, The PC’s System Resources.
b. Interrupt Request (IRQ): Checking Out IRQ Settings, IRQ Connections, IRQ Assignments, Configuring IRQ Settings, Programmable Interrupt Controllers.
c. I/O Addresses: Common I/O Address Assignments, I/O Addresses in Windows, Logical Devices.
d. Memory Addresses
e. Direct Memory Access (DMA): DMA Operation, DMA Channels, DMA Modes, DMA Parties.
f. Resolving Resource Conflicts: Plug and Pray, One Step at a Time, Read the Fantastic Manual (RTFM), Troubleshooting IRQs, Troubleshooting DMA Channels, Running Windows Troubleshooting.
SECTION 14: POWER SUPPLY AND ELECTRICAL ISSUES (10 HRS)
a. Understanding Electricity: Counting Electrons, Measuring Current, Switching AC to DC.
b. Elementary Electronics: Digital Circuit, Semiconductors, Conductors, and Insulators, Electronic Building Blocks.
c. Static Electricity and ESD: ESD, Dealing with Static Electricity.
d. The Power Supply: Good Power Signal, Soft Switches, Voltages, Power Supply Form Factors, Operational Ratings.
e. Electrical Power Issues: Protecting the Power Supply, Watts and Volt-amps Ratings.
PART III EXTERNAL COMPONENTS
SECTION 15: THE SYSTEM CASE (10 HRS)
a. The Case for the Case: Case Components, The Chassis, The Cover, The Front Panel, Front-Panel Switches, Drive Bays.
b. System Case Styles: Tower versus Deskt, System Case Form Factors.
c. System Case Features: I/O Templates, Power Supply, Power Supply, LEDs, the Speaker, and Some Connecting Wires, Cooling Vents, Mounting Hardware.
SECTION 16: MONITORS AND DISPLAYS (10 HRS)
a. CRTs versus Flat-Panels: The PC Monitor, CRT Displays, Flat-Panel Displays, Flat-Screen versus Flat-Panel, Viewable Size, Dots and Pixels, Resolution, Aspect Ratio, Monitor Size and Resolution, Color Depth, Refresh Rate, Signals and Connectors, Monitor Controls, Video Display Standards, Video Cards.
b. The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT): Painting the Screen, Refreshing the Display, Masking the Display, Dot Pitch and Stripe Pitch, Scan Rates, Raster versus Vector Graphics, Analog versus Digital CRTs.
c. Flat-Panel Displays: Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), LCD Types, Viewing Angles.
d. Integrated PC and Monitors
e. Pen-Based Systems
f. Monitor Power: Power Management, Degaussing, Screen Savers.
g. Monitor Maintenance: Caring for the Monitor.
h. Monitor Safety: Personal Safety, Environmental Issues.
SECTION 17: PRINTERS (10 HRS)
a. Printer Types and Technologies: The Evolution of the PC Printer, A Quick Look at Printer Characteristics.
b. Dot Matrix Printers: Printing on a Dot Matrix Printer, Print Buffer, Print Buffer.
c. Inkjet Printers: Inkjet Technologies, The Inkjet Printing Process, Inkjet Ink, Inkjet Cartridges, Inkjet Paper, Paper Flow, Printer Drivers.
d. Laser Printers: Laser Printer Technologies, Inside the Laser Printer, Color Laser Printers, Toner.
e. LED Printers
f. Thermal Printers
g. Connecting the Printer to the PC: Using a Switchbox, Printer Standards, Connecting to a Network.
h. Printer Safeguards: Laser Printer Care.
i. Setting Up a Printer in Windows
SECTION 18: KEYBOARDS, MICE, AND POINTING DEVICES (10 HRS)
a. Keyboards: Keyboard Elements, Keyboard Layouts, and Styles, Keyboard Technology, Keyboard Controller, Keyboard Cable, Keyboard Connectors.
b. The Mouse: Inside the Mouse, Mouse Connectors, Data Interface, Wheel Mouse, Optical Mouse, Other Pointing Devices.
SECTION 19: PORTS AND CONNECTORS (10 HRS)
a. Connectors on the Motherboard: Back Panel Connectors, Onboard Connectors, Front Panel Connectors.
b. External Ports and Connectors
c. Character Data
d. Serial and Parallel Data
e. Full, Half, and Single Modes
f. Serial Ports and Connectors Pinouts and Cable Connections, Asynchronous Communications, Synchronous Communications, RS-232 Communications.
g. Cabling the Connection: Configuring a Serial Port, Troubleshooting a Serial Port.
h. Parallel Ports: Parallel Port Standards
i. The USB Interface: Connecting with USB, How USB Works.
j. The FireWire Interface: Defining the 1394 Bus.
k. Wireless Ports: Infrared Ports, Radio Frequency Interfaces.
l. PS/2 and DIN Connectors
m. Video Interfaces: Video Connectors.
n. SCSI Interface: External SCSI Connectors, SCSI Standards, SCSI Voltage Differentials, Configuring SCSI Devices.
SECTION 20: NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS (10 HRS)
a. Network Basics: What Is a Network?, Network Structures, Network Components.
c. Cabling: Cable Types, Cable Characteristics, Ethernet Cable Designations, Broadband versus Baseband, Twisted Pair Wire, Fiber Optic Cable.
d. Backbones and Segments: FDDI, Segments.
e. Networking Devices: Repeaters, Hubs, Bridges, Switches, Routers, Gateways, Network Interface Cards (NICs), NIC Connectors.
f. Network Topologies
g. Network Addressing: MAC Addresses, IP Addresses, Network Names.
h. Configuring a PC for Network Connection
i. Dialing Up a Network: Modem Types, Internal versus External Modems, AT Commands, Dial-up Connections, Troubleshooting Modem Connections.
j. Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL): DSL Modems, Bridges, and Routers.
k. Cable Modems
l. ISDN Terminal Adapters
m. Wireless Networking: Access Points and Network Adapters, Bluetooth.
SECTION 21: AUDIO/VISUAL DEVICES (10 HRS)
a. Sound on the PC: Sound Card, Amplifier, Speakers, Software.
b. Sound Capture and Playback: Capture, Digital Audio Extraction, Playback, Sound File Formats, Streaming Audio.
c. CD-ROM and DVD Interfaces
d. Installing a Sound Card: ISA Sound Cards, PCI Sound Cards.
e. Video and Graphic Files: AVI, MPEG, QuickTime Movie, Video Terminology, Streaming Video, Codecs, Teleconferencing Systems.
f. Image Capture: Scanners, Image Software, Video Capture Devices, Digitizers.
PART IV SYSTEM CARE AND TROUBLESHOOTING
SECTION 22: PC CARE AND MAINTENANCE (10 HRS)
a. Preventive Maintenance of a PC: Input Devices, Output Devices, Cleaning and Maintenance Supplies, Inside the Case, Hard Disk Drives, Floppy Disk Drive, CD-ROM, and DVD Drives, Miscellaneous Components, Portable PCs, Virus Detection and Protection, Electrical Protection, Environmental Issues.
SECTION 23: ELECTRICAL POWER ISSUES (10 HRS)
a. Power Line Problems: Line Noise, Power Surges, Power Spikes, Power Sags or Dips, Brownouts, Blackouts.
b. Protecting Against Power Problems: No Power Protection, Surge Suppressors, Other Surge Suppressor Types, Line Conditioners, Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), Protecting Modems and Networks.
c. Saving the Planet
d. DC Power
SECTION 24: TROUBLESHOOTING PC HARDWARE (10 HRS)
a. Power Source and Environmental Issues
b. Learning from the Past
c. Troubleshooting FRMs: Troubleshooting the BIOS, Troubleshooting the CPU, Troubleshooting the Floppy Disk Drive, Troubleshooting Hard Disk Drives, Troubleshooting Memory, Troubleshooting the Video System, Troubleshooting the Power Supply, Troubleshooting the Sound System.
Lectures = 130 HRS
Practical/Tutorials = 130 HRS
Total = 260 HRS
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